Minimally/Non-Invasive Strategies for Pharmacokinetic Studies and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring


  • Sutapa Biswas Majee Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, NSHM Knowledge Campus, Kolkata-Group of Institutions, 124 B L Saha Road, Kolkata 700 053, West Bengal, India
  • Soupayan Pal Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032. West Bengal, India



Microdialysis, microsampling, interstitial fluid, paediatric, pharmacokinetics, saliva, sweat, therapeutic, drug monitoring


Pharmacokinetic studies deal with characterisation of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs, usually in body fluids such as blood or urine. However, invasiveness, risk of pain and infection, need for expert personnel, suitable laboratory facilities and infrastructure associated with blood sampling by conventional venepuncture in various patient populations have necessitated introduction of minimally/non-invasive techniques and access to minimally/non-invasive biological fluids for pharmacokinetic estimations and therapeutic drug monitoring. The review focusses on techniques like microdialysis, microsampling, and electrochemical sensing with special emphasis on techniques specially employed for paediatric subjects. Minimally/non-invasive biological fluids such as interstitial fluid, sweat, saliva, breast milk, lachrymal fluid, synovial fluid and breath gas have been also included in the review which have been employed for several pharmacokinetic studies. Challenges, demerits and future scope of the mentioned techniques and strategies have also been discussed with an aim to their commercialisation for routine purpose.


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