Comparison of Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profiles of Butters Produced from Cream Fermented by LAB Strains Isolated from Traditional Iranian Butter
Keywords:Butter, Chemical characteristics, fermentation, free fatty acid (FFA) composition, rheological properties, sensory properties
Due to high nutritional value of butter, extensive studies have been undertaken to improve its functional properties focusing on the reduction of cholesterol. One of the health benefits of probiotics is their ability to reduce serum cholesterol. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, Fatty Acid Profiles, rheological behavior and sensory properties of butter samples produced by adding adjunct culture with the ability of cholesterol assimilation. Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Neoscardovia arbecensis and Lactobacillus pentosus were used as adjunct culture in the process of industrial butter. Results shown that using all examined strains as an adjunct starter reduced the amount of saturated fatty acids in butter and increased the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. In the butter sample prepared with Lactobacillus brevis, the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acids was observed (33.2%) and was the softest butter in rheological properties. Sensory analysis showed a significant differences between all treatments (P<0.05) than control and the sample with Neoscardovia arbecensis was more acceptable than the others.
It is concluded that due to the high health effect properties of the examined strains and their acceptable technological characteristics, we do encourage dairy industries involved in butter production to incorporate these strains in their product and introduce novel functional butter to the market.
Mortensen BK. Butter and other milk fat|: The product and its manufacture. Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences 2011; (Second Edition): 492-499. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374407-4.00061-3
Gomes AA, Braga SP, Cruz AG, Cadena RS, Lollo PCB, Carvalho C, Amaya-Farfán J, Faria JAF, Bolini HMA. Effect of the inoculation level of Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic cheese on the physicochemical features and sensory performance compared with commercial cheeses. Journal of Dairy Science 2011; 49(10): 4777-4786. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4175
Ranadheera CS, Evans CA, Adams MC, Baines SK. Production of probiotic ice cream from goat's milk and effect
of packaging materials on product quality. Small Ruminant Res 2013; 112(1-3): 174-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.12.020
Soukoulis C, Lyroni E, Tzia C. Sensory profiling and hedonic judgment of probiotic ice cream as a function of hydrocolloids, yogurt and milk fat content. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2010; 43 (9): 1351-1358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.05.006
Ishimwe NEB, Daliri BH, Lee F, Fang G. The perspective on cholesterol?lowering mechanisms of probiotics. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 2015; 59(1): 94-105. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400548
Caplice E, Fitzgerald GF. Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation. International Journal of Food Microbiology 1999; 50(1-2): 131-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(99)00082-3
Ewe JA, Loo SY. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter 2016; 201: 29-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.049
Aloglu H, Oner Z. Assimilation of cholesterol in broth, cream, and butter by probiotic bacteria. Europian Journal of Lipid Science Technology 2006; 108: 709-713. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200600137
Ostadzadeh M, Habibi Najafi MB, Ehsani. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Iranian butter with probiotic and cholesterol lowering properties: In vitro and in vitro activity. (Under review).
Tamime AY. Dairy fat and related Products. CH 5: butter. John Wiley & Sons 2009; 86-106. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444316223.ch5
ISO 3727 – 1: 2001 / IDF 80 – 1: 2001, Butter – Determination of moisture, non – fat solids and fat content - Part 1: Determination of moisture content. Part 2: Determination of non-fat solids content.
ISO 660: 2009, Animal and vegetable fats and oils — Determination of acid value and acidity.
ISO 3657: 2002 Animal and vegetable fats and oils – Determination of saponification value.
ISO 3961: 2009, Animal and vegetable fats and oil Determination of iodine value Test method.
ISO 3960: 2007, Animal and vegetable fats and oils — Determination of peroxide value— Iodometric (visual) endpoint determination.
ISO 12966-2: 2011, Animal and vegetable fats and oils- Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters- Part 2: Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters.
Rohm H, Weidinger KH. Rheological behaviour of butter at small deformations. Journal of Texture Studies 1993; 24: 157-172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.1993.tb00041.x
Anon. International dairy federation (IDF) standard 99 c-1997. Part II - recommended Method sensory evaluation of butter. 1997.
Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. (ISIRI). Pasteurized butter-Specifications and test methods. 6th revision, ISIRI No. 162. 2016 [In Persian].
Hayaloglu AA. A comparative study on physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic qualities of butter produced from cream and yoghurt in Malatya region. M.Sc. thesis, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey 2006.
Sagdic O, Arici M, Simsek O. Selection of starters for a traditional Turkish yayik butter made from yoghurt. Food Microbiology 2002; 19: 303-312. https://doi.org/10.1006/fmic.2002.0489
Bezerra TKA, Arcanjo NMDO, Garcia EF, Gomes AMP. Queiroga RdCRDE, Souza ELD, Madruga MS. Effect of supplementation with probiotic lactic acid bacteria, separately or combined, on acid and sugar production in goat ‘coalho’ cheese. LWT - Food Science and Technology 2017; 75: 710-718. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2016.10.023
Florence ACR, Beal C, Silva RC, Bogsan CSB, Pilleggi AL, Gioielli LA, Oliveira MN. Fatty acid profile, trans-octadecenoic, ?-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid contents differing in certified organic and conventional probiotic fermented milks. Food Chemistry 2012; 135: 2207-2214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.07.026
Santos Jr. OO, Pedrao M, Coro FA, DeSouza FG. Fatty acid content of bovine milk fat from raw milk to yoghurt. American Journal of Applied Science 2012; (8): 1300-1306. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2012.1300.1306
Fox PF, McSweeney PLH. Advanced dairy chemistry. Volume 2: Lipids, Springer Science Publishing 2006. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-28813-9
Ekinci FY, Okur OD, Ertekin B, Guzel-Seydim Z. Effects of probiotic bacteria and oils on fatty acid profiles of cultured cream. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 2008; 110: 216-224. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700038
Kim JJ, Jung TH, Ahn J, Kwak HS. Properties of cholesterol- reduced butter made with ?-cyclodextrin and added evening primrose oil and phytosterols. Journal of Dairy Science 2005; 89: 4503-4510. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72498-5
Shukla A, Rizivi SSH. Viscoelastic properties of butter. Journal of Food Science 1995; 60(5): 902-905. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb06257.x
Wright AJ, Scanlon MG, Hartel RW, Marangoni AG. Rheological Properties of Milkfat and Butter. Journal of Food Science 2001; 66: 1056-1071. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2001.tb16082.x
Senel E, Atamer M, Oztekin FS. The oxidative and lipolytic stability of Yay?k butter produced from different species of mammal’s milk (cow, sheep, goat) yoghurt. Food Chemistry 2011; 127: 333-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.012
Tamime AY. Structure of dairy products. Ch 4: Microstructure of dairy fat products. Blackwell Publishing 2007; 72-103. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470995921